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Preemptive roaming does not come without a penalty, however.
For the client to predetermine which AP to roam to, the client must scan for APs during normal nonroaming periods.
In general, there are two mechanisms for finding APs: Active scanning is the most thorough mechanism used to find APs because it actively sends out 802.11 probes across all channels to find an AP.
It requires the client to dwell on a particular channel for a set length of time, roughly 10 to 20 milliseconds (ms) depending on the vendor, waiting for the probe response.
This process allows for minimal total roaming time, which reduces application impact from roaming.With passive scanning, the client iterates through the channels slower than active scanning because it is listening for beacons that are sent out by APs at a set rate (usually 10 beacons per second).The client must dwell on each channel for a longer time duration to make sure it receives beacons from as many APs as possible for the given channel.The client looks for different information elements such as SSID, supported rates, and vendor proprietary elements to find an AP.Although it can be a faster mechanism to scan the medium, some elements are not transmitted, depending on AP configuration.
Now that you understand some of the characteristics of roaming, the technical discussion of how Layer 2 roaming operates can begin.